John Bowlby proposed, in his theory of attachment, that humans are ‘hardwired’ to respond to social releasers from infants – they can’t help but respond to an infant’s smiles or cries of distress and this responsiveness is in our genes. New research has provided evidence of the brain circuitry involved in this response. Dr. Madoka Noriuchi and his colleagues in Tokyo (2008, abstract) used a brain scanning technique (fMRI) to look at how mothers’ brains respond to infants who are happy or upset/crying. Certain areas were active when the mothers observed their own infant’s smiles and cries as opposed to other infants (in particular it was areas in the cerebral cortex and limbic system). Smiling and crying are attachment behaviours – they elicit caregiving from the infant’s mother figure and ensure safety for the infant. This research shows us the neurophysiological basis for the attachment response (maternal love) and supports the view that such a response is innate – because there is a specialised area in the brain that responds.
2014 National curriculum about accountability A Level algebra ALL Anne Watson arts assessment assessment without levels Attachment Back to school brain case studies classroom comprehension concepts/language confirmation bias critical thinking curriculum david crystal debbie barton depression DfE dictionary Digital drama drugs early years ed-tech Education english ethics exams false friends Fractions Freud GCSE genes guided reading history human sciences implications independent reading Jill Carter John Mason knowledge claims knowledge questions KS1 KS2 KS3 language learning literacy mathematics maths maths education media memory methodology Milgram natural sciences Ofsted oxford owl perspectives primary Primary assessment and accountability problem solving Professional Development Project X psychology Rachel Hawke reading reading for pleasure Rebecca Priest Rebecca Veals research revision schizophrenia science secondary secondary education shakespeare shared knowledge sleep statistics steve fearnley Stress teaching teaching mathematics technology TOK emotion TOK imagination TOK intuition TOK language TOK reason TOK sense perception TOK ways of knowing truth writing